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Article XIX

TRIALS AND APPEALS

Trials of Local Union Officers and Members

Section 1(a). A member or officer of a Local Union charged by any other member of the Local Union with any offense constituting a violation of this Constitution shall, unless otherwise provided in this Constitution, be tried by the Local Union Executive Board. If the member charged or preferring the charges is a member of such Board, or if a member of the Local Union Executive Board is unable to attend the hearing for any reason, then the principal executive officer of the Local Union shall appoint an uninvolved member as a substitute. If either the President or Secretary-Treasurer of the Local Union is charged or is preferring the charges, or is unable to attend the hearing for any reason, the other officer shall appoint the substitute.

If both the President and Secretary-Treasurer of the Local Union are charged or are preferring the charges, or for any reason are unable to attend the hearing, the remaining members of the Local Union Executive Board shall appoint the substitutes. In no event shall any involved officer or member serve on a hearing panel, participate in the selection of a substitute member of a hearing panel, or participate in the decision making process of the trial body. This prohibition shall apply to any proceeding conducted under Article XIX or any other Article of this Constitution.

Charges by, against, or involving a majority of the members of a Local Union Executive Board shall be filed with the Secretary-Treasurer of the Joint Council for trial by the Joint Council Executive Board. Where there is no chartered Joint Council, reference in this Article XIX relating to trials and appeals by or before Joint Councils shall apply pursuant to Article XV to the appropriate existing State or Multi-State Conferences.

(b). Whenever charges are preferred against any member or officer of a Local Union, the charges shall be filed in writing in duplicate with the Secretary-Treasurer of the Local Union, Joint Council, or General Executive Board which is to try the case. Prior to notifying a member or officer that charges are filed, the Local Union Executive Board, Joint Council Executive Board, or General Executive Board with which the charges have been filed shall review the charges and dismiss them if the charges have not been timely filed or if the act complained of does not constitute a violation subject to discipline under this Constitution or Bylaws of the appropriate union entity. If the charges are dismissed, the charging party shall be notified in writing and may appeal directly to the General President. Appeals from the decisions of the General President may be filed with the General Executive Board. Any such appeal shall be limited to the question of whether the charges are properly filed. In the event such appeal is granted, the charges will be returned to the body with which they were filed for trial on the merits.

(c). No member or officer of a Local Union shall be tried unless he or she shall be served by the Secretary-Treasurer or his designee, personally or by mail, with a written copy of such charges specifying the nature of the offense of which he or she is accused. Thereupon, the accused shall be required to stand trial at the time and place designated, which shall not be less than ten (10) days from the date the charges are served upon the accused. The accused may appear in person, and with witnesses, to answer the charges preferred against him or her. The accused may select only a member in good standing of his Local Union to represent him in the presentation of his defense; and the charging party may select only a member in good standing of his Local Union to assist him in the presentation of the evidence in support of the charges. The Local Union Executive Board shall, upon the request of any party that a verbatim record be made, determine the manner of recording the proceedings. Any request by a party that a verbatim record be made must be received by the Executive Board not later than five (5) business days prior to the scheduled commencement of the hearing and shall be honored. The Local Union Executive Board shall have the authority to exclude any method of verbatim recording not authorized by it. All parties shall have access to such recording on an equal basis.

(d). A member of one Local Union shall have a right to file charges against a member of another Local Union. Such charges must be filed with the Executive Board of the Local Union of which the accused is a member. The Executive Board may, at its discretion, decline to process the charges. However, a decision of the Executive Board not to process the charges may be appealed in accordance with the provisions of Section 2.

(e). If the charges, or any portion thereof, are sustained, then the trial body shall render judgment and impose disciplinary actions as provided for in this Constitution. If the charges are not sustained, the same shall be dismissed. In order to be sustained, the charges must be supported by a preponderance of reliable evidence and a majority of the members of the panel must vote to find the charged party guilty. The decision of the hearing panel shall be in writing and shall set forth the reasons for the panel's findings. This requirement shall apply to any hearing required under Article XIX.

(f). Upon filing of such charges and if the same are of such magnitude and seriousness as to jeopardize the interests of the Local Union or International Union then, and in that event, the General President, if the matter is brought to his attention, may, if he deems it advisable, immediately suspend such officer from office in the Local Union until a decision has been rendered in the case. Any officer so suspended shall have the right to file an appeal with the General Executive Board. Upon reversal of the suspension, the officer shall be made whole for all economic loss.

(g). Charges may be preferred against a suspended member or an inactive member who has been issued a withdrawal card. Such suspended member or inactive member on withdrawal may utilize the appellate procedures available under this Constitution with respect to any charges filed against him; provided, however, that an inactive member who has voluntarily accepted a withdrawal card or has been suspended for failure to pay dues shall not have the right to file an appeal to the Convention. A suspended member or an inactive member on withdrawal may not file charges against an active member or officer.

Appeals of Local Union Officers and Members

Section 2 (a). In the event disciplinary action is taken against the accused, he or she may take an appeal from the decision of the Local Union Executive Board to the Executive Board of the Joint Council, if one exists; otherwise the appeal shall be taken to the General Executive Board. Appeals from decisions of the Executive Boards of Joint Councils may be taken to the General Executive Board. As to all other matters not specifically excluded herein, appeals from decisions of the General Executive Board may be taken to the next Convention. There shall be no further appeal from the decision of the Convention.

All manner of appeals shall be taken within fifteen (15) calendar days from the date the decision is placed in the mail or otherwise transmitted to the interested parties. Appeals shall be considered to be filed on the date postmarked, if served by mail, or the date transmitted, if served by facsimile. Appeals may not be served by electronic mail.

(b). The appellant shall mail or serve by facsimile a written notice of such appeal to the Secretary of the body to which the appeal is directed. No specific form or formality shall be required except that such notice shall clearly state an appeal is being taken from the particular decision rendered in the particular case. Any party electing to appeal to the Convention, where such appeal is permitted, must notify the General Secretary-Treasurer within the time limit set forth in Section 2 (a) of this Article. Pending any appeal, the decision appealed from shall remain in full force and effect. Appeals shall be heard either on the record made before the trial tribunal or by a retrial, at the discretion of the body hearing the appeal. Where an appeal is heard by a Joint Council or the General Executive Board as a trial or retrial, a verbatim recording shall be made in a manner selected by the hearing panel. The hearing panel shall have the authority to exclude any method of verbatim recording not authorized by it. All parties shall have access to the hearing record on an equal basis.

The date when an appeal will be considered by the appellate body may be fixed by it, but it shall proceed without unnecessary delay. No hearing on any appeal shall be held less than ten (10) days from the date on which notice of the hearing has been served on the parties unless all parties agree to waive this requirement. Notice of the date when the appeal will be heard shall be served personally or by mail on the parties interested in the particular case, and such parties may, at the discretion of the appellate body, be accorded the right to appear before the appellate body and present argument on the case.

Decisions on appeals shall be rendered within sixty (60) days after the appeal has been heard. Decisions shall be by majority vote of the hearing body. Decisions shall be in writing and shall set forth the reasons for the body's findings.

(c). If a member of the Executive Board of the Joint Council is involved in a case as a party or witness or is unable to attend the hearing for any reason, a substitute shall be appointed from among the delegates to the Joint Council in accordance with the same procedures set forth in Article XIX, Section 1(a), governing the appointment of substitutes on the Local Union Executive Board. No member of the Joint Council Executive Board or delegate shall serve on a panel considering an appeal from a decision involving members or officers of his Local Union.

If a member of the General Executive Board is involved in a case as a party or witness or is unable to attend the meeting at which the General Executive Board decides the case, the remaining members of the General Executive Board shall be empowered to decide the case.

(d). Failure of any interested party in any case to appear before any trial or appellate body at the time and place designated in the notice shall constitute a waiver of appearance and the trial shall proceed or the appeal be heard regardless of the absence of such party.

If the charging party fails to appear in person before any trial or appellate body on the date set for trial or hearing, the charges shall be dismissed. Failure of the charging party to present evidence in support of the charges shall require dismissal of the charges. In either event, such dismissal shall constitute a final adjudication from which there can be no appeal, and after such dismissal the accused may not be retried on the same charges.

(e). Any party to a case, regardless of whether such party is the accused or not, being aggrieved of a decision rendered in the case shall be entitled to the same rights of appeal as are hereinbefore provided for the accused.

(f). The charging party, the accused, and the Local Union Executive Board may select only a member of the Local Union to represent them at a hearing conducted before any appellate body.

Trials and Appeals of Officers of Joint Councils, Members of Conference Policy Committees and other Subordinate Bodies

Section 3(a). Whenever charges are filed against an officer of a Joint Council, a member of a Conference Policy Committee, or officer of any other subordinate body (other than a Local Union) for a violation committed in that capacity, such charges shall be filed in writing in duplicate with the Secretary of that body. Trials shall be conducted in accordance with the procedures set forth in Section 1 of this Article.

(b). All appeals from any decision of a trial body shall be filed with the General Executive Board and appellate review shall be conducted in accordance with the procedures set forth in Section 2 of this Article.

(c). The General President shall have the authority set forth in Section 1(f) of this Article with respect to any charges filed under this Section.

Trials and Appeals of Local Unions, Other Subordinate Bodies and Elective International Union Officers

Section 4(a). Whenever charges are preferred against a Local Union or against a Joint Council, or other subordinate body, such charges shall be filed in writing in duplicate with the Secretary of the trial body, and shall be served personally or by mail on the Secretary-Treasurer of the Local Union or the Joint Council or other subordinate body so charged. If the charges are against the Local Union the trial shall be by the Executive Board of the Joint Council; provided that if a Local Union is not affiliated with a Joint Council due to the fact that no Joint Council exists with which such Local Union can affiliate, the trial shall be by the General Executive Board. If the charges are against a Joint Council or other subordinate body, the trial shall be before the General Executive Board. The provisions of this Section shall also be applicable when the Executive Board of the subordinate body is charged or is the charging party. In no event may a member of the charged Local Union or Joint Council be a member of the hearing panel. Selection of substitute members of the hearing panel shall be in accordance with the procedures set forth in Section 1 of this Article.

(b). A Local Union shall be accorded thirty (30) calendar days time in which to appear for trial and submit its defense. In the case of a Joint Council or other subordinate body the time of trial shall be fixed by the General Executive Board. A verbatim record of any such trial shall be made in the manner selected by the hearing panel. Charges shall be sustained only by majority vote of the panel. Decisions shall be in writing, shall set forth the reasons for the body's findings, and shall be rendered within ninety (90) calendar days after the matter has been heard.

(c). Appeals from decisions on charges against Local Unions or Local Union Executive Boards shall be taken to the General Executive Board and from it to the Convention. Appeals from decisions on charges against Joint Councils or other subordinate bodies shall be taken to the Convention by only the Joint Council or other subordinate body involved. In all other respects the procedure on appeals shall be the same as provided in Section 2.

(d). Trial of elective International Union officers shall be only before the General Executive Board at such time and place as fixed by the General Executive Board. The officer charged shall be found guilty only on a two-thirds (2/3) vote of the uninvolved members of the General Executive Board who have heard the charges. Appeals from the decisions of the General Executive Board shall be to the Convention. Charges against a majority of the members of the General Executive Board shall be filed with the Convention.

Charges against elective officers of the International Union or any subordinate body shall be limited only to those activities or actions occurring during their current term of office, and only those activities and actions occurring prior to their current term which were not then known generally by the membership of the International Union or the subordinate body in the case of an officer of a subordinate body.

(e). Emergency powers provided for in Section 11 of this Article shall apply with the same force and effect to Local Unions and Joint Councils and other subordinate bodies.

Original Jurisdiction of General Executive Board to Try Offenses Against International Union

Section 5(a). Notwithstanding any other provision of this Constitution, the General Executive Board shall have jurisdiction to try individual members, officers, Local Unions, Joint Councils, or other subordinate bodies for all offenses committed against the officers of the International Union or the International Union. In the event charges have been filed or hearings are pending before a subordinate body in respect to any offense over which the General Executive Board has assumed jurisdiction under this Section, the jurisdiction of such subordinate body shall forthwith terminate and the subordinate body shall, upon request of the General Executive Board, transfer all of its records and papers pertaining to the case to the General Executive Board.

(b). In any proceeding brought under this Section, the accused shall be afforded the appropriate notice provided in either Section 1 or 4 of this Article. All procedures set forth in Section 1 of this Article regarding the replacement of involved members of the trial panel shall be utilized to ensure an unbiased panel considers the matter. The accused shall be accorded all rights set forth in any other Section of Article XIX.

(c). Charges shall be filed in duplicate in writing with the General Secretary-Treasurer or the General President. A copy of the charges shall be served personally or by mail upon the accused, together with notice of the time and place of trial.

(d). If the accused are unable to be present at the meeting of the General Executive Board, they may present their case in writing.

(e). Charges shall be sustained only by majority vote of the panel. Appeals from decisions of the General Executive Board shall be to the Convention.

Trials and Appeals Before Panels of Executive Boards

Section 6. In a case where a trial or hearing on appeal before the General Executive Board or the Executive Board of any subordinate body is required under the provisions of this Constitution, such Board or the General President or the President of the Executive Board involved, as the case may be, may have such trial or hearing on appeal conducted before a panel appointed by the General President or the President of the subordinate body, as the case may be. However, in no event shall the authority to conduct a hearing be delegated to persons who are not members in good standing of the International Union. Such a panel shall consist of one or more uninvolved members and shall act on behalf of such Board in the holding of hearings and the taking of evidence. No member of the hearing panel or of the Board who is involved in the charges shall participate in deciding any aspect of the case, as prohibited by Section 1 of this Article. In the event a panel is established to conduct a hearing, a verbatim record must be made. The panel shall make a full report in writing to the Board, including findings and recommendations for disciplinary action, if any. The ultimate decision of the case, however, shall be made by the Board itself. The parties to the appeal shall not be entitled to further hearing or further personal appearance before the General Executive Board.

The General Executive Board, in its discretion, shall have the authority to decide any appeal on the basis of written submissions without the conduct of a hearing.

Grounds for Charges Against Members, Officers and Subordinate Bodies

Section 7(a). No member or officer shall be required to stand trial on charges involving the same set of facts as to which he is facing criminal or civil trial until his final court appeal has been concluded. Nor shall a member or officer be required to stand trial on charges that are substantially the same or arise under the same circumstances as prior internal union charges against such member or officer, provided that a decision was rendered on those prior charges. Any charge based upon alleged misconduct which occurred more than five (5) years before the discovery of the conduct giving rise to the charge shall be rejected by the Secretary-Treasurer, except charges based upon the nonpayment of dues, assessments, and other financial obligations.

Nothing herein shall preclude the General President with the approval of the General Executive Board, or the General Executive Board acting on its own initiative, from suspending a member or officer facing criminal or civil trial while the charges are pending. If exonerated the member or officer shall be made whole for all economic loss.

(b). The basis for charges against members, officers, elected Business Agents, Local Unions, Joint Councils, or other subordinate bodies for which he or it shall stand trial shall consist of, but not be limited to, the following:

(1). Violation of any specific provision of the Constitution, Local Union Bylaws or rules of order, or failure to perform any of the duties specified thereunder.

(2). Violation of oath of office or of the oath of loyalty to the Local Union and the International Union.

(3). Breaching a fiduciary obligation owed to any labor organization by any act of embezzlement or conversion of union's funds or property.

(4). Secession, or fostering the same.

(5). Conduct which is disruptive of, interferes with, or induces others to disrupt or interfere with, the performance of any union's legal or contractual obligations. Causing or participating in an unauthorized strike or work stoppage.

(6). Disruption of union meetings, or assaulting or provoking assault on fellow members or officers, or failure to follow the rules of order or rulings of the presiding officer at meetings of the Local Union, or any similar conduct in, or about union premises or places used to conduct union business.

(7). Crossing an authorized primary picket line established by the member's Local Union or any other subordinate body affiliated with the International Union.

(8). Retaliating or threatening to retaliate against any member for having filed disciplinary charges or otherwise participated in a disciplinary hearing unless such charges were filed or pursued for the purpose of harassment or malicious injury.

(9). Knowingly associating (as that term has been defined in prior decisions on disciplinary charges under this Article) with any member or associate of any organized crime family or any other criminal group.

(10). Retaliating or threatening to retaliate against any member for exercising rights under this Constitution or applicable law including the right to speak, vote, seek election to office, support the candidate of one's choice, or participate in the affairs of the Union.

(11). Committing any act of racketeering activity as defined by applicable law.

(12). Obstructing or interfering with the work of, or unreasonably failing to cooperate in any investigation conducted by a Personal Representative appointed by the General President.

(13). Accepting money or other things of value from any employer or any agent of an employer, in violation of applicable law.

(14). Attempting to influence the operation of any employee benefit plan in violation of applicable law.

Specific Offenses

Section 8. Any member who (1) knowingly goes to work or remains in the employment of any person, firm, or corporation, whose employees are on strike or locked out, unless he has permission of the International Union, the Joint Council, or his Local Union, may be tried by the Executive Board of his Local Union. Any member who (2) knowingly gives or attempts to give, directly or indirectly, any information to any employer on an unfair list or whose employees are on strike or locked out, or whose employees are trying to secure an agreement or an improvement in their working conditions, or whose employees are trying to prevent an increase in hours of labor or a decrease in wages, for the purpose of assisting such employer, or for any gain or promise of gain, or who (3) knowingly goes to work or remains in the employment of any person, firm, or corporation on an unfair list of the International Union without permission from the International Union, the Joint Council, or his Local Union, may be tried in the manner provided for the trial of other offenses. It is recommended that the penalty for violating this Section shall be a fine equal to wages earned while working in violation of this Section. For repeated violations, suspension, or expulsion in addition to a fine should be considered.

Refusal to Return Records

Section 9. Any member (1) who wrongfully takes or retains any money, books, papers, or any other property belonging to the International Brotherhood of Teamsters, any Joint Council, Local Union, or other sub-ordinate body or (2) who destroys any books, bills, receipts, vouchers, or other property of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters, any Joint Council, Local Union, or other subordinate body, may be tried in the manner provided for the trial of other offenses.

Decisions and Penalties

Section 10(a). Decisions and penalties imposed upon individual members, officers, elected Business Agents, Local Unions, Joint Councils, or other subordinate bodies found guilty of charges may consist of reprimands, fines, suspensions, expulsions, revocations, denial to hold any office permanently or for a fixed period, or commands to do or perform, or refrain from doing or performing, specified acts. If the penalty is by way of fine, then the same must be paid pending an appeal, if one is taken, unless the General President upon request waives payment pending appeal. A Local Union ordered to reinstate a member or perform an act other than the payment of a fine must comply therewith as a condition precedent to taking an appeal unless the General President or the General Executive Board suspends such order pending the appeal. If the fine is against a member or officer of a Local Union, assessed by the Local Union or Joint Council, it shall be paid into the treasury of the Local Union. If a fine is assessed against a Local Union by a Joint Council, the payment shall be to the treasury of the Joint Council.

(b). If the fine is assessed when the General Executive Board has assumed original jurisdiction, it shall be paid to the treasury of the International Union. In any other situation in which the General Executive Board assesses a fine, it shall be paid to the treasury of the subordinate body which first had jurisdiction to consider the charge.

(c). When such penalty consists only of a fine and an appeal is taken, such fine shall be deposited as above provided; thereupon such member, elected Business Agent, officer, Local Union, Joint Council, or other subordinate body shall be permitted to continue in the Local Union with full rights and privileges in accordance with the laws of the International Union. If on appeal the decision is reversed and the fine disallowed, then the same shall be returned to the party depositing the same. Whenever a decision is handed down by any trial or appellate body and an appeal is taken, such decision shall stand and remain in full force and effect until reversed by a higher body unless the General President upon request stays the effectiveness of the decision pending appeal.

(d). In the event of noncompliance with the decision handed down by a trial or appellate body, the member, elected Business Agent, officer, Local Union, Joint Council, or other subordinate body shall stand suspended from all rights and privileges under this Constitution until the provisions of the decision have been complied with, unless the General President has waived payment of a fine or stayed the effectiveness of the decision pending appeal. If, however, the decision carries with it an order of expulsion, then such order of expulsion shall immediately take effect, unless the General President has stayed the effectiveness of the decision pending appeal. Notwithstanding the above, the General President shall not have authority to waive payment of a fine or stay a penalty imposed after a final decision on the merits has been rendered by the General Executive Board.

(e). Any expelled member may be subsequently reinstated to membership in the Local Union from which expelled, or permitted membership in another Local Union, only by the action of the General Executive Board.

(f). Any member or Local Union that is tried by the General Executive Board cannot be tried for the same offense by a Local Union or Joint Council.

(g). The General Executive Board may send a case back to the Joint Council, the Local Union, or other hearing body or officer for further hearing, production of additional testimony, or for further consideration with or without such further hearing.

Emergency Power in General President to Conduct a Trial When Welfare of Organization Demands

Section 11(a). Whenever charges involving a member or members, officer or officers, Local Union, Joint Council, or other subordinate body create, involve, or relate to a situation imminently dangerous to the welfare of a Local Union, Joint Council, other subordinate body, or the International Union, the General President is empowered, at his discretion, in all cases, except where the General Executive Board has assumed jurisdiction under Section 5 of this Article, to assume original jurisdiction in such matter, regardless of the fact that charges have been filed with a subordinate body and are pending. When the General President has assumed such original jurisdiction, under this Section, the jurisdiction of the subordinate body shall cease. Under such circumstances, the General President shall hold a hearing upon giving not less than forty-eight (48) hours notice to the party or parties charged to appear before him at a place and time designated by him. He shall then proceed to hear and try the matter and render judgment in accordance with the facts and circumstances presented to him. When the General President has so acted, an appeal shall lie from his decision to the General Executive Board, and from the General Executive Board to the Convention in the same manner and to the same extent only as is provided for appeals in other cases. Pending appeal from the General Presidentís action, his decision shall stand and be enforced. All procedures set forth elsewhere in this Article to protect the rights of all parties shall apply to any proceeding under this Section.

(b). When the General President deems it necessary to exercise the foregoing emergency power, he may deputize a member or members of the International Union to act as his representative or representatives in such matter. Such representative shall have the same power as the General President as herein provided; however, when a trial shall be conducted by a representative or representatives of the General President, such representative or representatives shall make his or their recommendations to the General President, orally or in writing, and the decision in the case shall be made by the General President himself.

Refusal of Local Union to Try Member

Section 12. If a Local Union refuses to try its members when charges have been preferred by another Local Union, for any cause whatsoever, the Local Union preferring the charges may then bring the charge before the Executive Board of the Joint Council, where one exists, for trial and decision in the same manner as trials before the Local Union Executive Board. If no Joint Council exists, then the matter shall come within the jurisdiction of the General Executive Board.

Exhaustion of Remedies

Section 13(a). Every member, officer, elected Business Agent, Local Union, Joint Council, or other subordinate body against whom charges have been preferred and disciplinary action taken as a result thereof, or against whom adverse rulings or decisions have been rendered or who claims to be aggrieved, shall be obliged to exhaust all remedies provided for in this Constitution and by the International Union before resorting to any court, tribunal, or agency against the International Union, any subordinate body or any officer or employee thereof.

(b). Where a Local Union, Joint Council, or other subordinate body, before or following exhaustion of all remedies provided for within the International Union, resorts to a court of law and loses its cause therein, all costs and expenses incurred by the International Union may be assessed against such Local Union, Joint Council, or other subordinate body, in the nature of a fine, subject to all penalties applicable where fines remain unpaid.

Where such court action is by a Local Union, Joint Council, or other subordinate body against a Local Union, Joint Council, or other subordinate body, the foregoing provision in respect to the payment of costs and expenses shall be applicable in favor of the Local Union, Joint Council, or other subordinate body proceeded against in court.

(c). The trial and appeals procedure provided herein is also available to and must be followed by any active or inactive member who is aggrieved by any decision, ruling, opinion, or action of the Local Union, membership, officers, or Executive Board, excluding collective bargaining matters and decisions issued under a dispute resolution procedure established in a collective bargaining agreement.

Independent Review Board

Section 14(a). Following the certification of the results of the 1991 election of International Union officers, there shall be established an Independent Review Board consisting of three members. The General President, with General Executive Board approval, shall appoint a member of the Review Board. Another member shall be appointed by the Attorney General of the United States. The third member shall be selected by the International Unionís and Attorney Generalís appointees. The initial term of office of each Review Board member shall be until the completion of the 1996 International Convention, and thereafter the term of office shall be five years. Each Review Board member may be reappointed to additional terms by that memberís appointing entity. No Review Board member may be removed from office except upon application to a federal court of competent jurisdiction alleging malfeasance or dereliction of duty. In the event of a vacancy during a term of a member of the Review Board, a replacement shall be selected in the same manner as the person who is being replaced was selected.

(b). The Independent Review Board:

(1) Shall decide all cases referred to it in accordance with Article XIX of this Constitution and affirm, reverse, or modify any decision appealed from.

(2) Shall investigate any allegations of corruption, including bribery; extortion; embezzlement; use or threats of force or violence against members to interfere with or extort their rights under this Constitution or their union democracy rights under applicable law, including their right to assemble, express their views, vote, seek election to office, support the candidates of their choice, and participate in the affairs of the Union; acceptance of money or other things of value from any employer or any agent of an employer, in violation of applicable law; and any act of racketeering activity, as defined in applicable law; any allegations of domination, control, or influence over any affiliate, officer, member, employee, or representative by any organized crime family or any other criminal group; any allegations of knowing association with any person enjoined from participating in union affairs; and any failure to cooperate fully with the Independent Review Board in any investigation of the foregoing.

(3) Shall have the authority to exercise any investigative authority vested in the General President or General Secretary-Treasurer by the 1986 Constitution and/or this Constitution, as well as any and all applicable provisions of law.

(4) Shall have the authority to hire such staff, including investigators and attorneys, as it deems necessary to carry out its functions.

(5) Shall issue, upon completion of an investigation, a written report detailing its findings, charges, and recommendations concerning discipline of officers, members, employees, and representatives, and concerning the placing in trusteeship of any subordinate body, which reports shall be available during business hours for public inspection at the International Unionís office in Washington, D.C.

(c). (1) The Independent Review Board shall refer in writing any findings, charges, or recommendations regarding discipline or trusteeship matters to an appropriate Union entity for review, investigation, or action within the authority of that entity under this Constitution and applicable law. The Independent Review Board may designate any such matter as an original jurisdiction case for General Executive Board review. Copies of all written referrals shall be sent to the General President and General Executive Board. The Union entity to which the matter has been referred shall promptly take whatever action is appropriate under the circumstances and shall, within ninety (90) days of the referral, make written findings setting forth the specific action taken and the reasons for that action.

(2) The Independent Review Board shall monitor all matters which it has referred for action. If, in the Review Boardís sole judgment, the Union entity to which a matter has been referred has not pursued or decided the matter in a lawful, responsible, or timely manner, or has implemented or proposed a resolution of the matter that is inadequate under the circumstances, the Review Board shall notify the Union entity involved of its view, and the reasons therefore, and provide a copy of such notice to the General President and General Executive Board. The Union entity so notified shall, within ten (10) days of receipt of the notice, set forth in writing any and all additional actions it has taken or will take to correct the defects set forth in the notice and specify a deadline by which said action will be completed.

(3) Upon consideration of the Union entityís written response, the Independent Review Board immediately thereafter shall issue a written determination concerning the adequacy of the additional action taken and/or proposed by the Union entity involved. If the Review Board concludes that the Union entity has failed to take or propose satisfactory action to remedy the defects set forth in the Review Boardís notice, the Review Board shall promptly convene a hearing on the matter, after notice to all affected parties. Parties to such hearings shall be permitted to present any facts, evidence, or testimony relevant to the issues before the Review Board. Hearings shall be conducted under rules and proceedings, generally applicable to labor arbitration hearings, to be established by the Review Board. In establishing such rules and procedures, the Review Board may incorporate procedural requirements contained elsewhere in this Article, together with such additional safeguards, such as the right to counsel, as in the judgment of the Review Board shall ensure a fair hearing.

(4) After conducting a fair hearing, the Independent Review Board shall issue a written decision, and send it to the General President, each member of the General Executive Board, and all affected parties. The Review Boardís decision shall be final and binding, and the General Executive Board shall take all action which is necessary to implement said decision, consistent with this Constitution and applicable law.

(5) The Independent Review Board shall have the right to examine and review the General Executive Boardís implementation of its decisions and, if dissatisfied, to take whatever steps are appropriate to ensure proper implementation of any such decisions.

(d). The Independent Review Board shall have the right to receive copies of and review any disciplinary or trusteeship decision of the General Executive Board and affirm, modify, or reverse any such decision in a written, final, and binding decision.

(e). The Independent Review Board may use the Review Boardís staff to assist in the exercise of the Review Boardís powers and the performance of its duties. The ultimate decision in cases that come before it shall rest with the Review Board.

(f). All decisions of the Independent Review Board shall be by majority vote.

(g). The International Union shall pay all costs and expenses (including salaries) of the Independent Review Board and its staff. Invoices for all costs and expenses shall be directed to the General President for payment.

(h). The Independent Review Board will operate from offices as close as practicable to the International Unionís headquarters in Washington, D.C. It shall have the authority to conduct hearings, at such locations as the members deem appropriate.

(i). All officers, members, employees, and representatives of the International Union and its affiliated bodies shall cooperate fully with the Independent Review Board in the course of any investigation or proceeding undertaken by it. Unreasonable failure to cooperate with the Review Board shall be deemed to be conduct which brings reproach upon the Union, and which is thereby within the Review Boardís investigatory and decisional authority.


 

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